Student specific housing is offered by different organisations. Most only offer contracts for a year, but this is still a good place to start if you’re new to the city and the Netherlands as a whole. Find these options by searching “short stay student housing Maastricht”.
But the most comprehensive housing agency is Maastricht Housing. Their website is a great place to start because it specialises solely in housing for students and associates of the institutions of higher education. Also, they give a very broad range of different housing options for students. If you want them to help you with your search, you must sign up and pay a one-time fee of 35€. This will grant you access to their vast range of offers.